Software Development

Fastened Partitions

Partitions should be mapped to cluster nodes.
The mapping additionally must be saved and made accessible to the purchasers.
It is common to make use of a devoted Constant Core; this
handles each. The devoted Constant Core acts as a coordinator which
retains observe of all nodes within the cluster and maps partitions to nodes.
It additionally shops the mapping in a fault tolerant means by utilizing a
Replicated Log. The grasp cluster in YugabyteDB
or controller implementation in Kafka are each
good examples of this.

Peer-to-peer methods like Akka or Hazelcast
additionally want a specific cluster node to behave as an coordinator.
They use Emergent Chief because the coordinator.

Programs like [kubernetes] use a generic
Constant Core like [etcd].
They should elect one of many cluster nodes to play the position of
coordinator as mentioned right here.

Monitoring Cluster Membership

Every cluster node will register itself with the consistent-core.
It additionally periodically sends a HeartBeat to permit
the Constant Core detect node failures.

class KVStore…

  public void begin() 
      community.sendAndReceive(coordLeader, new RegisterClusterNodeRequest(generateMessageId(), listenAddress));
          community.ship(coordLeader, new HeartbeatMessage(generateMessageId(), listenAddress));
      , 200, 200, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS);


The coordinator handles the registration after which shops member info.

class ClusterCoordinator…

  ReplicatedLog replicatedLog;
  Membership membership = new Membership();
  TimeoutBasedFailureDetector failureDetector = new TimeoutBasedFailureDetector(Length.ofMillis(TIMEOUT_MILLIS));

  personal void handleRegisterClusterNodeRequest(Message message) 
      logger.information("Registering node " + message.from);
      CompletableFuture completableFuture = registerClusterNode(message.from);
      completableFuture.whenComplete((response, error) -> 
          logger.information("Sending register response to node " + message.from);
          community.ship(message.from, new RegisterClusterNodeResponse(message.messageId, listenAddress));

  public CompletableFuture registerClusterNode(InetAddressAndPort tackle) 
      return replicatedLog.suggest(new RegisterClusterNodeCommand(tackle));

When a registration is dedicated within the Replicated Log,
the membership can be up to date.

class ClusterCoordinator…

  personal void applyRegisterClusterNodeEntry(RegisterClusterNodeCommand command) 

class ClusterCoordinator…

  personal void updateMembership(InetAddressAndPort tackle) 
      membership = membership.addNewMember(tackle);

The coordinator maintains a listing of all nodes which might be a part of the cluster:

class Membership…

  public class Membership {
      Record<Member> liveMembers = new ArrayList<>();
      Record<Member> failedMembers = new ArrayList<>();
      public boolean isFailed(InetAddressAndPort tackle) 
          return -> m.tackle.equals(tackle));

class Member…

  public class Member implements Comparable<Member> {
      InetAddressAndPort tackle;
      MemberStatus standing;

The coordinator will detect cluster node failures utilizing a
mechanism just like
If a cluster node stops sending the heartbeat, the node
can be marked as failed.

class ClusterCoordinator…

  public void onBecomingLeader() 
      scheduledTask = executor.scheduleWithFixedDelay(this::checkMembership,

  personal void checkMembership() 
      Record<Member> failedMembers = getFailedMembers();
      if (!failedMembers.isEmpty()) 
          replicatedLog.suggest(new MemberFailedCommand(failedMembers));

  personal Record<Member> getFailedMembers() 
      Record<Member> liveMembers = membership.getLiveMembers();
              .filter(m -> failureDetector.isMonitoring(m.getAddress()) && !failureDetector.isAlive(m.getAddress()))

An instance state of affairs

Contemplate that there are three information servers athens, byzantium and cyrene.
Contemplating there are 9 partitions, the move appears like following.

The consumer can then use the partition desk to map a given key
to a specific cluster node.

Now a brand new cluster node – ‘ephesus’ – is added to the cluster.
The admin triggers a reassignment and the coordinator
checks which nodes are underloaded by checking the partition desk.
It figures out that ephesus is the node which is underloaded,
and decides to allocate partition 7 to it, shifting it from athens.
The coordinator shops the migrations after which sends the
request to athens to maneuver partition 7 to ephesus.
As soon as the migration is full, athens lets the coordinator know.
The coordinator then updates the partition desk.

Assigning Partitions To Cluster Nodes

The coordinator assigns partitions to cluster nodes that are recognized at
that cut-off date. If it is triggered each time a brand new cluster node is added,
it would map partitions too early till the cluster reaches a secure state.
For this reason the coordinator ought to be configured to attend till
the cluster reaches a minimal dimension.

The primary time the partition project is completed, it may well merely
be executed in a spherical robin style.

class ClusterCoordinator…

  CompletableFuture assignPartitionsToClusterNodes() 
      if (!minimumClusterSizeReached()) 
          return CompletableFuture.failedFuture(new NotEnoughClusterNodesException(MINIMUM_CLUSTER_SIZE));
      return initializePartitionAssignment();

  personal boolean minimumClusterSizeReached() 
      return membership.getLiveMembers().dimension() >= MINIMUM_CLUSTER_SIZE;
  personal CompletableFuture initializePartitionAssignment() 
      partitionAssignmentStatus = PartitionAssignmentStatus.IN_PROGRESS;
      PartitionTable partitionTable = arrangePartitions();
      return replicatedLog.suggest(new PartitiontableCommand(partitionTable));

  public PartitionTable arrangePartitions() 
      PartitionTable partitionTable = new PartitionTable();
      Record<Member> liveMembers = membership.getLiveMembers();
      for (int partitionId = 1; partitionId <= noOfPartitions; partitionId++) 
          int index = partitionId % liveMembers.dimension();
          Member member = liveMembers.get(index);
          partitionTable.addPartition(partitionId, new PartitionInfo(partitionId, member.getAddress(), PartitionStatus.ASSIGNED));
      return partitionTable;

The replication log makes the partition desk persistent.

class ClusterCoordinator…

  PartitionTable partitionTable;
  PartitionAssignmentStatus partitionAssignmentStatus = PartitionAssignmentStatus.UNASSIGNED;

  personal void applyPartitionTableCommand(PartitiontableCommand command) 
      this.partitionTable = command.partitionTable;
      partitionAssignmentStatus = PartitionAssignmentStatus.ASSIGNED;
      if (isLeader()) 

As soon as the partition project is persevered, the coordinator
sends messages to all cluster nodes to inform every node which partitions
it now owns.

class ClusterCoordinator…

  Record<Integer> pendingPartitionAssignments = new ArrayList<>();

  personal void sendMessagesToMembers(PartitionTable partitionTable) 
      Map<Integer, PartitionInfo> partitionsTobeHosted = partitionTable.getPartitionsTobeHosted();
      partitionsTobeHosted.forEach((partitionId, partitionInfo) -> 
          HostPartitionMessage message = new HostPartitionMessage(requestNumber++, this.listenAddress, partitionId);
          logger.information("Sending host partition message to " + partitionInfo.hostedOn + " partitionId=" + partitionId);
          scheduler.execute(new RetryableTask(partitionInfo.hostedOn, community, this, partitionId, message));

The controller will maintain attempting to succeed in nodes constantly till
its message is profitable.

class RetryableTask…

  static class RetryableTask implements Runnable 
      Logger logger = LogManager.getLogger(RetryableTask.class);
      InetAddressAndPort tackle;
      Community community;
      ClusterCoordinator coordinator;
      Integer partitionId;
      int try;
      personal Message message;

      public RetryableTask(InetAddressAndPort tackle, Community community, ClusterCoordinator coordinator, Integer partitionId, Message message) 
          this.tackle = tackle;
 = community;
          this.coordinator = coordinator;
          this.partitionId = partitionId;
          this.message = message;

      public void run() 
              //cease attempting if the node is failed.
              if (coordinator.isSuspected(tackle)) 
              logger.information("Sending " + message + " to=" + tackle);
              community.ship(tackle, message);
           catch (Exception e) 
              logger.error("Error attempting to ship ");

      personal void scheduleWithBackOff() 
          scheduler.schedule(this, getBackOffDelay(try), TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS);

      personal lengthy getBackOffDelay(int try) 
          lengthy baseDelay = (lengthy) Math.pow(2, try);
          lengthy jitter = randomJitter();
          return baseDelay + jitter;

      personal lengthy randomJitter() 
          int i = new Random(1).nextInt();
          i = i < 0 ? i * -1 : i;
          lengthy jitter = i % 50;
          return jitter;


When cluster node receives the request to create the partition,
it creates one with the given partition id.
If we think about this occurring inside a easy key-value retailer,
its implementation will look one thing like this:

class KVStore…

  Map<Integer, Partition> allPartitions = new ConcurrentHashMap<>();
  personal void handleHostPartitionMessage(Message message) 
      Integer partitionId = ((HostPartitionMessage) message).getPartitionId();
      logger.information("Including partition " + partitionId + " to " + listenAddress);
      community.ship(message.from, new HostPartitionAcks(message.messageId, this.listenAddress, partitionId));

  public void addPartitions(Integer partitionId) 
      allPartitions.put(partitionId, new Partition(partitionId));


class Partition…

  SortedMap<String, String> kv = new TreeMap<>();
  personal Integer partitionId;

As soon as the coordinator receives the message that the partition
has been efficiently created,
it persists it within the replicated log and updates the partition standing to be on-line.

class ClusterCoordinator…

  personal void handleHostPartitionAck(Message message) 
      int partitionId = ((HostPartitionAcks) message).getPartitionId();
      pendingPartitionAssignments.take away(Integer.valueOf(partitionId));
      logger.information("Acquired host partition ack from " + message.from + " partitionId=" + partitionId + " pending=" + pendingPartitionAssignments);
      CompletableFuture future = replicatedLog.suggest(new UpdatePartitionStatusCommand(partitionId, PartitionStatus.ONLINE)); a part of();

As soon as the Excessive-Water Mark is reached,
and the file is utilized, the partition’s standing can be up to date.

class ClusterCoordinator…

  personal void updateParitionStatus(UpdatePartitionStatusCommand command) 
      logger.information("Altering standing for " + command.partitionId + " to " + command.standing);
      partitionTable.updateStatus(command.partitionId, command.standing);
Consumer Interface

If we once more take into account the instance of a easy key and worth retailer,
if a consumer must retailer or get a worth for a specific key,
it may well accomplish that by following these steps:

  • The consumer applies the hash operate to the important thing and finds
    the related partition primarily based on the whole variety of partitions.
  • The consumer will get the partition desk from the coordinator
    and finds the cluster node that’s internet hosting the partition.
    The consumer additionally periodically refreshes the partition desk.

Purchasers fetching a partition desk from the coordinator can
shortly result in bottlenecks,
particularly if all requests are being served by a
single coordinator chief. That’s the reason it is not uncommon follow to
maintain metadata obtainable on all cluster nodes.
The coordinator can both push metadata to cluster nodes,
or cluster nodes can pull it from the coordinator.
Purchasers can then join with any cluster node to refresh
the metadata.

That is usually carried out contained in the consumer library offered by the important thing worth retailer,
or by consumer request dealing with (which occurs on the cluster nodes.)

class Consumer…

  public void put(String key, String worth) throws IOException 
      Integer partitionId = findPartition(key, noOfPartitions);
      InetAddressAndPort nodeAddress = getNodeAddressFor(partitionId);
      sendPutMessage(partitionId, nodeAddress, key, worth);

  personal InetAddressAndPort getNodeAddressFor(Integer partitionId) 
      PartitionInfo partitionInfo = partitionTable.getPartition(partitionId);
      InetAddressAndPort nodeAddress = partitionInfo.getAddress();
      return nodeAddress;

  personal void sendPutMessage(Integer partitionId, InetAddressAndPort tackle, String key, String worth) throws IOException 
      PartitionPutMessage partitionPutMessage = new PartitionPutMessage(partitionId, key, worth);
      SocketClient socketClient = new SocketClient(tackle);
      socketClient.blockingSend(new RequestOrResponse(RequestId.PartitionPutKV.getId(),
  public String get(String key) throws IOException 
      Integer partitionId = findPartition(key, noOfPartitions);
      InetAddressAndPort nodeAddress = getNodeAddressFor(partitionId);
      return sendGetMessage(partitionId, key, nodeAddress);

  personal String sendGetMessage(Integer partitionId, String key, InetAddressAndPort tackle) throws IOException 
      PartitionGetMessage partitionGetMessage = new PartitionGetMessage(partitionId, key);
      SocketClient socketClient = new SocketClient(tackle);
      RequestOrResponse response = socketClient.blockingSend(new RequestOrResponse(RequestId.PartitionGetKV.getId(), JsonSerDes.serialize(partitionGetMessage)));
      PartitionGetResponseMessage partitionGetResponseMessage = JsonSerDes.deserialize(response.getMessageBodyJson(), PartitionGetResponseMessage.class);
      return partitionGetResponseMessage.getValue();
Transferring partitions to newly added members

When new nodes are added to a cluster, some partitions may be moved to
different nodes. This may be executed robotically as soon as a brand new cluster node is added.
However it may well contain a number of information being moved throughout the cluster node,
which is why an administrator will usually set off the repartitioning.
One easy methodology to do that is to calculate the common variety of partitions
every node ought to host after which transfer the extra partitions
to the brand new node.
For instance, if the variety of partitions is 30 and there are three present nodes
within the cluster, every node ought to host 10 partitions.
If a brand new node is added, the common per node is about 7. The coordinator
will subsequently attempt to transfer three partitions from every cluster node
to the brand new one.

class ClusterCoordinator…

  Record<Migration> pendingMigrations = new ArrayList<>();

  boolean reassignPartitions() 
      if (partitionAssignmentInProgress()) 
          logger.information("Partition project in progress");
          return false;
      Record<Migration> migrations = repartition(this.partitionTable);
      CompletableFuture proposalFuture = replicatedLog.suggest(new MigratePartitionsCommand(migrations)); a part of();
      return true;
public Record<Migration> repartition(PartitionTable partitionTable) 
    int averagePartitionsPerNode = getAveragePartitionsPerNode();
    Record<Member> liveMembers = membership.getLiveMembers();
    var overloadedNodes = partitionTable.getOverloadedNodes(averagePartitionsPerNode, liveMembers);
    var underloadedNodes = partitionTable.getUnderloadedNodes(averagePartitionsPerNode, liveMembers);

    var migrations = tryMovingPartitionsToUnderLoadedMembers(averagePartitionsPerNode, overloadedNodes, underloadedNodes);
    return migrations;

personal Record<Migration> tryMovingPartitionsToUnderLoadedMembers(int averagePartitionsPerNode,
                                                                Map<InetAddressAndPort, PartitionList> overloadedNodes,
                                                                Map<InetAddressAndPort, PartitionList> underloadedNodes) 
    Record<Migration> migrations = new ArrayList<>();
    for (InetAddressAndPort member : overloadedNodes.keySet()) 
        var partitions = overloadedNodes.get(member);
        var toMove = partitions.subList(averagePartitionsPerNode, partitions.getSize());
        overloadedNodes.put(member, partitions.subList(0, averagePartitionsPerNode));
        ArrayDeque<Integer> moveQ = new ArrayDeque<Integer>(toMove.partitionList());
        whereas (!moveQ.isEmpty() && nodeWithLeastPartitions(underloadedNodes, averagePartitionsPerNode).isPresent()) 
            assignToNodesWithLeastPartitions(migrations, member, moveQ, underloadedNodes, averagePartitionsPerNode);
        if (!moveQ.isEmpty()) 
    return migrations;

int getAveragePartitionsPerNode() 
    return noOfPartitions / membership.getLiveMembers().dimension();

The coordinator will persist the computed migrations within the replicated log
after which ship requests to maneuver partitions throughout the cluster nodes.

personal void applyMigratePartitionCommand(MigratePartitionsCommand command) 
    logger.information("Dealing with partition migrations " + command.migrations);
    for (Migration migration : command.migrations) 
        RequestPartitionMigrationMessage message = new RequestPartitionMigrationMessage(requestNumber++, this.listenAddress, migration);
        if (isLeader()) 
            scheduler.execute(new RetryableTask(migration.fromMember, community, this, migration.getPartitionId(), message));

When a cluster node receives a request emigrate, it can mark
the partition as migrating.
This stops any additional modifications to the partition.
It’s going to then ship your entire partition information to the goal node.

class KVStore…

  personal void handleRequestPartitionMigrationMessage(RequestPartitionMigrationMessage message) 
      Migration migration = message.getMigration();
      Integer partitionId = migration.getPartitionId();
      InetAddressAndPort toServer = migration.getToMember();
      if (!allPartitions.containsKey(partitionId)) 
          return;// The partition shouldn't be obtainable with this node.
      Partition partition = allPartitions.get(partitionId);
      community.ship(toServer, new MovePartitionMessage(requestNumber++, this.listenAddress, toServer, partition));

The cluster node that receives the request will add
the brand new partition to itself and
return an acknowledgement.

class KVStore…

  personal void handleMovePartition(Message message) 
      MovePartitionMessage movePartitionMessage = (MovePartitionMessage) message;
      Partition partition = movePartitionMessage.getPartition();
      allPartitions.put(partition.getId(), partition);
      community.ship(message.from, new PartitionMovementComplete(message.messageId, listenAddress,
              new Migration(movePartitionMessage.getMigrateFrom(), movePartitionMessage.getMigrateTo(),  partition.getId())));

The cluster node beforehand owned the partition will then
ship the migration full message
to the cluster coordinator.

class KVStore…

  personal void handlePartitionMovementCompleteMessage(PartitionMovementComplete message) 
      allPartitions.take away(message.getMigration().getPartitionId());
      community.ship(coordLeader, new MigrationCompleteMessage(requestNumber++, listenAddress,

The cluster coordinator will then mark the migration as full.
The change can be saved within the replicated log.

class ClusterCoordinator…

  personal void handleMigrationCompleteMessage(MigrationCompleteMessage message) 
      MigrationCompleteMessage migrationCompleteMessage = message;
      CompletableFuture suggest = replicatedLog.suggest(new MigrationCompletedCommand(message.getMigration())); a part of();

class ClusterCoordinator…

  personal void applyMigrationCompleted(MigrationCompletedCommand command) 
      pendingMigrations.take away(command.getMigration());
      logger.information("Accomplished migration " + command.getMigration());
      logger.information("pendingMigrations = " + pendingMigrations);

class PartitionTable…

  public void migrationCompleted(Migration migration) 
      this.addPartition(migration.partitionId, new PartitionInfo(migration.partitionId, migration.toMember, ClusterCoordinator.PartitionStatus.ONLINE));

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