Technology

New nanoscale 3D printing materials gives higher structural safety


Nov 18, 2022

(Nanowerk Information) Science fiction envisions speedy 3D printing processes that may rapidly create new objects out of any variety of supplies. However in actuality, 3D printing continues to be restricted within the properties and varieties of supplies which are out there to be used, particularly when printing at very small scales. Researchers at Stanford have developed a brand new materials for printing on the nanoscale – creating buildings which are a fraction of the width of a human hair – and used it to print minuscule lattices which are each robust and light-weight.Tiny but strong Stanford logo made using nanoscale 3D printing

Tiny however robust Stanford emblem made utilizing nanoscale 3D printing. (Picture: John Kulikowski) In a paper revealed in Science (“Mechanical nanolattices printed utilizing nanocluster-based photoresists”), the researchers demonstrated that the brand new materials is ready to soak up twice as a lot vitality than different 3D-printed supplies of a comparable density. Sooner or later, their invention might be used to create higher light-weight safety for fragile items of satellites, drones, and microelectronics. “There’s a whole lot of curiosity proper now in designing several types of 3D buildings for mechanical efficiency,” says Wendy Gu, an assistant professor of mechanical engineering and a corresponding creator on the paper. “What we’ve carried out on high of that’s develop a cloth that’s actually good at resisting forces, so it’s not simply the 3D construction, but additionally the fabric that gives superb safety.”

Introducing metallic nanoclusters

To design a greater materials for 3D printing, Gu and her colleagues integrated metallic nanoclusters – tiny clumps of atoms – into their printing medium. The researchers are printing with a way referred to as two-photon lithography, the place the printing materials is hardened by means of a chemical response initiated by laser mild. They discovered that their nanoclusters had been superb at jump-starting this response and resulted in a cloth that was a composite of the polymer printing medium and metallic. “The nanoclusters have superb properties for taking within the laser mild, after which changing that to a chemical response,” Gu says. “And so they’re in a position to do that with a number of lessons of polymers, so that they’re much more versatile than I anticipated.” The researchers had been capable of mix metallic nanoclusters with acrylates, epoxies, and proteins – a number of widespread lessons of polymers which are utilized in 3D printing. Furthermore, the nanoclusters helped to hurry up the printing course of. By combining the nanoclusters with proteins, for instance, Gu and her colleagues had been capable of print at a price of 100 millimeters per second, which is about 100 occasions quicker than had beforehand been achieved in nanoscale protein printing. The researchers examined their new materials with a number of totally different lattice buildings, prioritizing the power to hold a heavy load in some and the power to soak up an affect in others. With the nanocluster-polymer composite, all of the buildings demonstrated a powerful mixture of vitality absorption, energy, and recoverability – basically the power to squish and spring again. “The lattice construction actually issues, however what we’re exhibiting right here is that if the fabric it’s made out of is optimized, that’s extra essential for efficiency,” Gu says. “You don’t have to fret about precisely what the 3D construction is in case you have the appropriate supplies to print with.”

Copying the pure world

In some methods, Gu and her colleagues are attempting to imitate what nature has already perfected. Bone, for instance, will get its resilience from the mixture of a tough exterior, nanoscale porosity, and small quantities of soppy materials. This mixture of a 3D construction and a number of, well-designed supplies permits our bones to switch vitality with out breaking (more often than not) and nonetheless stay comparatively light-weight. Ideally, 3D-printed protecting buildings would even have a number of varieties of materials inside them, some tougher and a few softer, to raised disperse an affect and resist crushing. “For the reason that nanoclusters are capable of polymerize these totally different lessons of chemical compounds, we could possibly use them to print a number of supplies in a single construction,” Gu says. “That’s one factor we’d wish to goal for.”

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